Cyberstalking Facts - Types of Stalkers and Cyberstalkers (2023) (2023)

Cyberstalking Facts - Types of Stalkers and Cyberstalkers (2023) (1)

Cyberstalking Facts: The stalker & cyberstalker profile involves multiple descriptions, definitions and dimensions. With the advent of Information and Communications Technology, cyberstalking has grown to become a concern for law enforcement and anyone engaged in online activities.

The typologies of stalkers are theoretical descriptions shared by both the cyber and physical stalkers. The goal of victim prevention is to first understand their rationale for acting as a predator and then develop strategies to prevent becoming a victim. Learning to profile and predict the stalker & cyberstalker reduces the predator’s objective of causing you or your loved ones psychological and physical harm.

Stalking is a behavior wherein a person willfully and repeatedly engages in conduct directed towards another person who, if known by the victim, causes significant concern and fear. The predator that initiates and sustains the stalking behavior(s) may or may not recognize he/she is causing their victim serious alarm, perceptual torment and the unfortunate experience of being terrorized.

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Stalking involves one person’s obsessive behavior toward another person. Initially, stalking usually takes the form of annoying, threatening or obscene telephone calls, emails or letters. During this period, the victim views the stalker’s actions as more of a form of harassment as opposed to an escalating dangerous situation. Once the harassment stage has been established, it is during this period that the potential victim needs to contact law enforcement. It is also crucial to begin keeping a written log documenting each time the stalker makes contact.

Psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals view most stalkers as suffering from a psychiatric illness(s) causing them to be psychotic or delusional. When not deemed as psychotic, stalkers are considered plagued by some type of personality disorder or fueled by unique psychological factors. In the most severe cases, the stalker is defined as a predatory stalker or sociopath.

Whatever the psychological rationale may be, the stalker rarely comprehends the fear he/she is causing the other person. Blinded by his/her motivations to stalk someone in the first place causes them to lose sight of the fear and terror they are causing. When anger, rage and hostility towards the victim are involved, the stalker is fully aware of the anguish he/she is causing, but feels the victim is deserving of the fear or simply does not care. In 1999, Australian stalking expert, Dr. Paul Mullen, and a group of investigators identified five types of stalkers, which remain applicable today for stalkers and cyberstalkers and as follows:

Stalker & Cyberstalking Typologies

I. Rejected Cyberstalkers: This type of cyberstalker is motivated to pursue their victim in attempt to reverse what they perceive as a wrongful set of circumstances causing a prior divorce, separation or termination of a relationship. These offenders either feel misunderstood hoping to reverse the breakup or feel angry and seeking revenge because their attempts at reconciliation with the victim has failed in the past.

II. Resentful Cyberstalkers: This type of cyberstalker can be dangerous given their perceived motivation for stalking. Resentful cyberstalkers are fully aware the victim is cognizant of the stalking but continues to fulfill a distorted vendetta he/she feels is warranted. Fear and distress experienced by the victim are the goals of this type of cyberstalker. For this type of profile, the cyberstalker believes the victim both deserves and requires being frightened because they have caused them and/or others anguish and distress.

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III. Intimacy Seekers: This type of cyberstalker does not have ill will towards their victim and simply wants to engage in a loving relationship with them. Intimacy seekers view their victims as their soulmate destined to be together at all costs. Within their mind, they believe it is their job and purpose to make sure destiny of a loving relationship is fulfilled. Intimacy seeking cyberstalkers are often the segment of men or women who harass celebrities and public figures. Blinded by their distorted perceptions of a destined love, they lose sight of the distress and fear they are causing the person they cyberstalk.

IV. Incompetent Suitors: These people who fit this profile are cyberstalkers deeply enamored with their victim. Their interest for the victim at times can reach a state of fixation whereby their entire waking life is focused on the endeavor of one day becoming a couple. They tend to lack social, communication or courting skills and may feel entitled that their fantasy of a loving relationship is inevitable. Feeling entitled and/or deserving of a relationship with the victim inspires the cyberstalker to gradually increase their frequency of contact. Although like the Intimacy Seeker cyberstalker, incompetent suitors are more gradual in their means and methods of contact.

V. Predatory Cyberstalkers: Of the six types, the predatory cyberstalker can be the most dangerous and determined. This type of cyberstalker is motivated by a perverted sexual need. They engage in actively planning an attack along with fantasizing about sexual acts with their victim. They do not have feelings of love for their victim nor motivated by a belief of predestination. Their fuel to dominate and victimize resembles the psychopath experiencing little to no remorse for the welfare of their victim.

VI. Ghost Cyberstalkers: Not included in Dr. Mullen’s five stalker profiles, the ghost cyberstalker is unique to the Information Age. They are online assailants who their target cannot identify. Using Cyberstealth, the ghost cyberstalker repeatedly makes direct or indirect threats of physical harm and inspires fear. They can represent an amalgamation of the other five types, be a predatory troll or a sadistic online user with no connection to their victim. Ghost cyberstalkers rely upon the veil of anonymity afforded to all online users.

Understanding the types of cyberstalker and what motivates them is the first step in reducing the probability of becoming one of their victims. Unfortunately, many men, women and society in general minimize the cyberstalker profile and mistakenly view these people as “unfortunate souls looking for love.” What people fail to understand is most of these predators engaged in cyberstalking suffer troublesome psychiatric illnesses, psychological issues, or motivated by urges to sexually dominate their victim(s).

Cyberstalking Facts - Types of Stalkers and Cyberstalkers (2023) (2)

“Welcome to the unseemly and perverse world of cyberstalkers; the digitally depraved and malevolent iPredators.”

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Michael Nuccitelli, Psy.D.

Most states have cyberstalking, cyber harassment and cyberbullying laws and/or include Information and Communications Technology within their traditional stalking or harassment laws. Protecting minors from online bullying and harassment have led states to enact cyber bullying laws. Cyberstalking is the use of Information and Communications Technology to stalk and refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors. Cyberstalking may be considered the most dangerous of the three types of information and communications technology harassment, based on posing a credible threat of harm. Legal sanctions range from misdemeanors to felonies and vary by state.

Cyber harassment differs from cyberstalking in that it is not involving a credible physical threat. Cyber harassment usually pertains to threatening or harassing messages using Information and Communications Technology to torment an individual, group or organization. Some states approach cyber harassment by including language addressing electronic communications in general harassment laws, while others have created stand-alone cyber harassment statutes.

Cyberbullying and cyber harassment are sometimes used interchangeably, but cyber bullying is used for electronic harassment or bullying among minors. Recent cyber bullying legislation reflects a trend of making school districts the policy enforcers of cyber bullying. As a result, statutes establish the infrastructure for schools to handle this issue by amending existing school anti-bullying policies to include cyber bullying and cyber harassment among school age children. Most of these state laws establish sanctions for all forms of cyber bullying on school property, school buses and official school functions.

However, some have also extended sanctions to include cyberbullying activities that originate off-campus, believing that activities off-campus can have a detrimental and disruptive effect on a child’s learning environment. The legal sanctions for cyberbullying range from misdemeanors to felonies with detention, suspension and expulsion from school.

Cyberbullying is a generic term used to define harmful, repeated and hostile online behavior intended to deprecate a targeted online user. Cyberbullying describes threatening or disparaging communications delivered through ICT. Whereas classic bullying typically involves face-to-face interactions and non-digital forms of communication, cyber bullying consists of information exchanged via ICT and may never involve face-to-face encounters.

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Bullying or classic bullying is a term used to define recurrent and sustained verbal and/or physical attacks by a child, adolescent or adult towards others who are unable or unwilling to deescalate the engagement. It may involve verbal harassment, physical assault, coercion, intimidation, humiliation and taunting. Bullying is composed of a combination of four basic types of abuse: emotional, social, verbal and physical abuse. Despite variants in definition, bullying always involves the use of harassment, force or coercion to affect a targeted victim. Classic bullying requires face-to-face interactions within the repertoire of behaviors. Among the billions of online users, lurks a dangerous element the unsuspecting person may fall victim to. Cyberstalkers and online predators are two groups who access the Internet seeking harmful interactions. In most cyberstalking events, the assailant is termed an iPredator.

Three Free Educational Cyberstalking Assessment Links

Cyberstalking Prevention Checklist [CSPC]

iPredator Probability Inventory – Cyberstalking [IPI-CS]

Cyberstalker Identification Interview [CSII]

Stalking and Cyberstalking also falls under the theoretical construct of Dark Psychology, coined by this writer. Dark Psychology is the study of the human condition as it relates to the psychological nature of people to prey upon others. All of humanity has this potential to victimize other humans & living creatures. While many restrain or sublimate this tendency, some act upon these impulses.

Dark Psychology seeks to understand those thoughts, feelings and perceptions that lead to predatory behavior. Dark Psychology assumes that this production is purposive and has some rational, goal-oriented motivation 99% of the time. The remaining 1%, under Dark Psychology, is the brutal victimization of others without purposive intent or defined by evolutionary science or religious dogma.

(Video) Facts About Cyberstalkers 1

With the advent of the internet, a unique environment now exists for Cyberstalkers and online predators. Millions of children, teens and adults create billions of internet exchanges daily. With the addition of cell phone and text messaging, the daily exchange number reaches the billions. Digital technology, telecommunications and the cyberspace environment are now hunting grounds for online predators and iPredators.

Cyberstalking was predicted as inevitable for years, but only recently have parents, young people and community agencies started to focus on this growing problem. To exemplify how this warning has been explained for well over a decade, the Department of Justice (DOJ) authored and released the 1999 Report Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry and defined cyberstalking, the dangers to children and cyberstalking resources. In this report, the DOJ is not only thorough, but prophetic as well. They clearly stated the problems of cyberstalking and predicted the number of online predators would increase with each passing year.

It is many years later, and the DOJ was correct in their predictions. Although the resources they provide are all highly reputable with excellent information, Working to Halt Online Abuse (WHOA), National Center for Victims of Crime, Cyber Angels and National Cybercrime Training Partnership are four organizations with incredible resources and educational tools.

For those interested in furthering their knowledge base on cyberstalkers and online predators, the International Association of Computer Investigation (IACIS) is a reputable organization. Their mission as stated at their web site is “IACIS® is an international volunteer non-profit corporation composed of law enforcement professionals dedicated to education in the field of forensic computer science. IACIS members represent Federal, State, Local and International Law Enforcement professionals. Regular IACIS members have been trained in the forensic science of seizing and processing computer systems.”

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Although expert associations like the DOJ and IACIS work to apprehend online predators, the number of cyber stalkers will continue to grow and it must be the citizens themselves to learn how to reduce their potential for becoming a future victim. The cyber stalker refers to a male, female or group of people who use the internet, e-mail, or any other electronic communications device to stalk another person. Stalking is defined as a behavior wherein a person willfully and repeatedly engages in conduct directed towards another person who, if known by the victim, can cause significant concern and fear.

Cyberstalking Facts - Types of Stalkers and Cyberstalkers (2023) (3)

Cyberstalking Examples

Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behavior that an individual or group engages in repeatedly targeting a victim(s). Cyberstalking is the same but includes the methods of intimidation and harassment via information and communications technology. Cyberstalking consists of harassing and/or tormenting behaviors in the form of:

I. Electronic messaging such as classic emails, text messages and Twitter.
II. Spamming and/or sending threatening emails to the victim or victim’s family, friends or co-workers.
III. Posting the victim’s personal information such as name, address, phone numbers, and e-mail address online.
IV. Posting offensive comments in the victim’s name.
V. Creating and posting sexually explicit images of the victim or victim’s loved ones.
VI. Hacking into the victim’s computer, accounts and mobile devices.
VII. Subscribing the victim to pornography sites and unwanted advertising.
VIII. Attaching spyware to emails or installing it on the computer.
IX. Setting up websites that threaten the victim or encourage others to contact, harass or harm them.
X. Computer Monitoring Software, or “Spyware,” allows a cyberstalker to monitor computer and Internet activities and discover a victim’s efforts to escape or access help. This software can be installed remotely or by physically accessing the victim’s computer.

Most stalking laws in the United States require the offender(s) to make a credible threat of violence against the victim. In addition to directly threatening the victim with harm, family members who are threatened may also be grounds for arrest. Depending on state laws, the alleged stalker’s course of conduct can constitute an implied threat. The National Center for Victims of Crime is a dedicated association, which can assist locating and defining state stalking laws and how to proceed.

While some stalking and cyberstalking conduct involving annoying or bothersome behavior falls short of illegal stalking, these behaviors may be a prelude to more intense stalking and violence. The goal is to treat these actions as serious and not to minimize. Although these behaviors could be defined as harassment, the time to become proactive is when knowledge of these actions becomes apparent.

Cyberstalkers are often motivated by negative emotions or serious psychological factors. Psychiatric illness, obsession fixations, revenge, hate, anger and jealousy are common affective states fueling the cyber stalker. At times, the victim may not even know or ever met the cyberstalker indicating another red flag of alert. Once aware of any indication of harassment or stalking has been initiated, the immediate next step is contacting local authorities. Although contacting local authorities may sound overblown or drastic, the potential outcome of not doing so may be far worse.

The methods the cyberstalker engages in ranges from novice to advanced. The more advanced they are in new electronic technology, the more proficient they become at targeting their victim. One of the methods few victims are aware of used by the cyberstalker is called cyber or digital surveillance. Cyber surveillance has both positive and negative applications. In the wrong hands, cyber surveillance can be deadly.

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Also called Digitally Mediated Surveillance (DMS), this advanced technology is becoming increasingly prevalent and more accessible by those seeking to secure their environment and those seeking to spy on others. Each time a person goes online, text messages, or uses anything else involving electronic communications, they produce a growing stream of personal digital data of interest to unseen others. As DMS becomes more accessible to the general population, the more careful unsuspecting victims will have to be.

A cyberstalker using cyber surveillance initially does not present a direct physical threat to his/her potential victim but follows the victim’s online activity to gather information on their personal habits and contacts. After sufficient data is compiled, he/she begins to make threats and other forms of verbal intimidation. The anonymity provided to the cyberstalker by online interactions reduces the probability of identification.

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This veil of invisibility and low probability of identification makes Cyberstalking far more common than physical stalking. Although cyberstalking might seem harmless by the younger generation or veteran online users, it can easily evolve into psychological and emotional harm. As part of the evolution of cyberstalking and victim inactivity, the veiled hidden harassment may lead to actual physical stalking and/or physical/sexual assault.

Cyberstalkers and Online Predators

Cyberstalkers and online predators target their victims via websites, chat rooms, discussion forums, message boards, blogs, email and text messaging. The availability of free email, website space and frequency of electronic communication usage provides the iPredator with a digital footprint. Having access to this information along with cyberstealth, the increase of cyberstalking in the form of harassment becomes obvious. The cyberstalker starts by quickly doing a Google or search engine search using the person’s alias, real name or email address or any other personal data. Other ways to compile personal information, which one would think innocuous, is by researching a victim’s public profile available at any social media site like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.

Cyber stalking is a quickly growing form of computer related crime in communities across the country. Cyberstalking is when a person is followed, monitored, harassed and pursued online. Whether the victim is aware or not, their privacy is invaded, their every move is watched and their personal information is slowly compiled. Once aware the stalking is occurring, this form of harassment often disrupts the life of the victim and leaves them feeling very afraid, threatened anxious and worried.

Cyberstalking usually occurs with women stalked by men, but women at greater rates are increasingly stalking men. Present numbers estimate the gender ratio at 3-1 with women being stalked three times as much. One of the fastest growing segments of victims is children stalked by adult predators, pedophiles and their peer groups.

The obvious difference between physical stalking and cyberstalking is that the cyberstalker does not have to open his or her front door. Everything he/she does can be done online and veiled by anonymity or what this writer has termed, Cyberstealth. Cyberstealth, a concept formulated along with iPredator, is a term used to define a method and/or strategy by which iPredators can establish and sustain complete anonymity while they troll and stalk a target. In addition to a stratagem, Cyberstealth is a reality of ICT, which humanity often fails to fathom. Given the internet inherently affords everyone anonymity, cyberstealth used by iPredator ranges from negligible to complex and multi-faceted.

Cyberstalking Facts - Types of Stalkers and Cyberstalkers (2023) (4)

Cyberstalkers need not have to leave their home to find and harass their targets. Having this anonymity, they have no fear of physical violence or the victim’s loved ones since they cannot be physically touched in cyberspace. They also feel confident legal intervention is not likely given their invisibility. Essentially, Cyberstalkers have a free ticket to act and behave without repercussions. Given this cloak preventing identification, they may be thousands of miles away, as close as a neighbor or even closer being a relative. Their unknown potential, geographic whereabouts or motivations can be a chilling experience.

Cyberstalking and the online predators who engage in these behaviors are growing with every passing year. Although organizations like the Department of Justice and the National Center for Victims of Crime work diligently to educate the public, society remains ignorant to the predators lurking within cyberspace. The reasoning for the public’s refusal for educating themselves and/or children lies in honest denial.

Cyberstalking Prevention

By not affirming these dangers are real, people do not have to be concerned or set boundaries on the information they reveal online. Cyberstalkers and iPredators rely on the public not becoming educated on the necessary steps involved to reduce their potential of becoming their next target. The steps needed for online protection and reasonable security is quite easy and straightforward. Educate yourself and loved ones on iPredator and cyberstalking profiles, set boundaries on personal information disclosed online, refrain from engaging in social exchanges with people you do not know, familiarize yourself with local laws on cyber harassment and always have local law enforcement’s contact information at hand.

Cyberstalking Facts - Types of Stalkers and Cyberstalkers (2023) (5)

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Michael Nuccitelli, Psy.D.

Michael Nuccitelli, Psy.D. is a NYS licensed psychologist, cyberpsychology researcher and online safety educator. In 2009, Dr. Nuccitelli finalized his dark side of cyberspace concept called iPredator. Since 2010, he has advised those seeking information about cyberbullying, cyberstalking, cybercriminal minds, internet addiction and his Dark Psychology concept. By day Dr. Nuccitelli is a practicing psychologist, clinical supervisor and owner of MN Psychological Services, PLLC. After work and on the weekends, he volunteers helping online users who have been cyber-attacked. Dr. Nuccitelli’s is always available to interested parties and the media at no cost. This website and everything created by Dr. Nuccitelli is educational, free and public domain.


What are the different types of stalkers in cyber security? ›

Internet stalking: This type of stalking occurs when an individual spreads rumors or tracks victims on the internet. The goal of spreading rumors is to slander the victim. Computer stalking: This type of stalking occurs when an individual hacks into a victim's computer and takes control of it.

What are three to five behaviors that may constitute cyberstalking? ›

Examples of cyberstalking include:
  • Sending unwanted, frightening, or obscene emails, or text messages.
  • Harassing or threatening you on social media.
  • Tracking your computer and internet use.
  • Using technology such as GPS to track where you are.

Who are mostly victims of cyberstalking? ›

While most cyberstalking victims are women, 20 to 40 percent of victims are actually men. Cyberstalking goes a lot further than just following someone on a social network. It's the intent to intimidate, which is the defining characteristic of cyberstalking.

What are the most common methods of cyberstalking? ›

Here are some examples of how Cyberstalking might take place:
  • Posting offensive, suggestive, or rude comments online.
  • Sending threatening, lewd, or offensive emails or messages to the victim.
  • Joining the same groups and forums as the victim.
  • Releasing the victim's confidential information online.

What are the three types of stalkers? ›

Using this typology, stalkers can be classified as a former sexual intimate (ex-intimate), an acquaintance (including friends and family members), or a stranger (either public figure or private stranger) (see Mohandie, Meloy, Green-McGowan, & Williams (2006). Journal of Forensic Sciences 51, 147–155).

What are the four categories of stalking? ›

What are the different types of stalking?
  • Simple Obsessional. The most common type of stalker is the simple obsessional. ...
  • Love Obsessional. This type of stalker usually knows the victim casually or is an acquaintance. ...
  • Erotomania. ...
  • False Victimisation Syndrome.
Dec 5, 2022

How do you know if someone is cyberstalking you? ›

Signs of cyberstalking may include someone:
  • Sending you too many unwanted or inappropriate messages;
  • Trolling you;
  • Liking an old post on social media;
  • Or manipulating you into talking to them online.
Jan 14, 2022

What is the golden rule of cyber stalking? ›

The golden rule here is not to make the mistake of underestimating the seriousness of the situation. Go with your instinct. If you feel uncomfortable, end all communications immediately.

What are the following stalking behaviors? ›

Stalkers use a variety of tactics, including (but not limited to): unwanted contact including phone calls, texts, and contact via social media, unwanted gifts, showing up/approaching an individual or their family/friends, monitoring, surveillance, property damage, and threats.

Who are the primary victims of stalking? ›

Though stalking is a gender-neutral crime, women are the primary victims of stalking and men are the primary perpetrators.

Who is most at risk for cyberstalking? ›

Women are more likely to be victims than men; according to a survey conducted by Statista, 64% of victims are female, while 36% are male. Sexual minorities face a higher risk; the Cyberbullying Research Center reported that 52% of LGBT youth experienced cyberstalking, compared to 25% of non-LGBT youth.

Why would someone cyberstalk you? ›

Cyberstalking of intimate partners is the online harassment of a current or former romantic partner. It is a form of domestic violence, and experts say its purpose is to control the victim in order to encourage social isolation and create dependency.

Why would a guy secretly stalk you? ›

Why Do People Stalk? Stalkers often emphasize that they “love” their victims and occasionally say they stalk to keep others safe. For example, an abusive ex-husband might say he stalks his ex-wife to ensure she's properly caring for their children. Psychologically, however, stalking is a crime of control.

What is the number one method used by cyber attackers? ›

Phishing is probably the most common form of cyber-attack, largely because it is easy to carry out, and surprisingly effective.

What triggers stalkers? ›

Stalking is often underpinned by a mix of righteousness and entitlement when someone believes that their standards of right and wrong are indisputable, and thus feel unable to respect someone's desire for no contact.

What is the weakness of stalkers? ›

Stalkers are more vulnerable to Shock attacks than other machines. Repeated attacks with weapons that deal Shock damage will quickly stun a Stalker.

Why do stalkers obsess? ›

The self-esteem of simple obsession stalkers is often closely tied to their relationship with their partner. In many cases, such stalkers bolster their own self-esteem by dominating and intimidating their mates. Exercising power over another gives them some sense of power in a world where they otherwise feel powerless.

What is the most common consequence of stalking? ›

Victims of stalking experience a number of disruptive psychological consequences of stalking, including significant fear and safety concerns, as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (2). Most stalking victims do not seek mental health services (2).

What mental illness includes stalking? ›

Mental health conditions often appear in those who become stalkers—research suggests that half of one sample of stalkers had a disorder such as antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder or borderline personality disorder. Borderline is particularly prominent in women stalkers.

What is erotomania stalking? ›

The phenomenon of stalking has been linked with erotomania and describes the course of conduct in which one individual repeatedly intrudes upon another producing fear and distress. The intrusions can involve following, loitering nearby, maintaining surveillance and making approaches (Pathe & Mullen 1997).

Can stalkers track your phone? ›

Stalkerware (and spyware) can monitor your device for data such as your location, which URLs you've visited and which apps you've recently run. It can even log keystrokes, giving away information about anything you've typed into your phone, including passwords.

What could be the signs that show a person is potentially being cyber stalked? ›

They know everything about you

This person may show up unexpectedly in person or may send you messages about what you did that day. Stalkers are constantly watching for new ways to get close to their victims, and that can often mean tracking social media accounts or geotagging in photos.

How does cyberstalking start? ›

Cyberstalking is the persistent harassment of a victim through distressing communications sent via the internet or other electronic means. Internet stalking can happen through email, text message, social media, web forums, GPS trackers, or any type of digital community, channel, or other online tool.

Who investigates cyber stalking? ›

The FBI is the lead federal agency for investigating cyber attacks and intrusions. We collect and share intelligence and engage with victims while working to unmask those committing malicious cyber activities, wherever they are.

What must exist for cyber stalking to be illegal? ›

In order for cyber harassment or cyberstalking to be punishable as a criminal offense, it must cause the victim disturbance, substantial emotional distress, or place the victim in reasonable fear of death or serious bodily injury, or in fear that the same thing might happen to a member of their immediate family or an ...

Which of the following is not cyber stalking? ›

Online gaming is not a cybercrime.

A crime that does not involve a computer, a network and a networked device is not a cybercrime. In cybercrime, a computer may have been used to target the victim. Some examples of cybercrime are Phishing, Cyberstalking, Spoofing, Privacy breach, Data breach, identity theft, etc.

Which of the following may be an indicator of stalking? ›

Look for evidence of varied stalking methods: making unwanted phone calls, messages, letters, e-mails, or sending unwanted gifts; following or spying; showing up in places frequented by the victim; or waiting for the victim.

What are the category classification types of stalking? ›

There are six general categories that define stalking behavior, such as the rejected stalker, resentful stalker, predatory stalker, intimacy seeker, incompetent suitor, and erotomania and morbidly infatuated.

Who are the typical cyberstalkers? ›

Cyberstalking: Victims and criminals

An overwhelming majority of cyberstalkers are men, while victims are usually women. However, cyberstalking cases where women were the perpetrators are not unheard of.

How many cyberstalkers are there? ›

According to a Statista survey conducted in 2021, approximately 11% of US adults have experienced cyberstalking at some point. The survey indicates that women were more likely to be cyberstalking victims than men. Of those surveyed, 15% of women reported being cyberstalked, compared to 6% of men.

What are the five types of stalkers? ›

By breaking down the stalking behaviours and methodology the researchers were able to identify the following five distinct types of stalkers:
  • Intimacy seeker.
  • Incompetent suitor.
  • Rejected.
  • Resentful.
  • Predatory.
May 16, 2022

What are the basics of stalking? ›

Stalking is generally defined as a pattern of behavior targeted at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear. Fear is central to the definition of stalking. Common stalking behaviors include (but are not limited to) following, repeated contact, surveillance, spreading rumors, and threats.

How do you expose a Cyberstalker? ›

The first point of contact should be local law enforcement, such as the police department. You may also need to escalate further and report to the FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center. To effectively report cyberstalking, you should collect evidence of the harassment.

How rare are stalkers? ›

#2 1 in every 6 women and 1 out of 19 men in the United States have been stalked in their lifetime. Many times, the stalker is someone the victim knows: #3 Almost 3 out of 4 stalking victims know their stalkers in some capacity.

How rare is it to be stalked? ›

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): Stalking is common. About 1 in 6 women and 1 in 17 men have experienced stalking in their lifetimes.


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